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Boron nitride and its development history

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Author : NANOTRUN
Update time : 2021-12-30 09:20:01
What is boron nitride?
Boron nitride is a crystal composed of nitrogen atoms and boron atoms. The chemical composition is 43.6% boron and 56.4% nitrogen, with four different variants: hexagonal boron nitride (HBN), rhombohedral boron nitride (RBN), cubic boron nitride (CBN), and wurtzite nitrogen Boron (WBN).
The development history of boron nitride
Boron nitride came out more than 100 years ago. The earliest application was hexagonal boron nitride as a high-temperature lubricant. Not only its structure but also its properties are very similar to graphite, and its own whiteness, so it is commonly called: white graphite.
Boron nitride (BN) ceramics is a compound discovered as early as 1842. A lot of research work has been done on BN materials abroad since the Second World War, and it was not developed until 1955 after the BN hot pressing method was solved. The American Diamond Company and Union Carbon Company were the first to put into production, and in 1960 they had produced more than 10 tons.
In 1957, R·H·Wentrof was the first to successfully trial-produce CBN. In 1969, General Electric Company sold the product as Borazon. In 1973, the United States announced the production of CBN tools.
In 1975, Japan imported technology from the United States and also produced CBN tools.
In 1979, the pulsed plasma technology was successfully used to prepare a collapsed c-BN film at low temperature and low pressure for the first time.
At the end of the 1990s, people have been able to use a variety of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods to prepare c-BN films.
From the perspective of China, development is advancing by leaps and bounds. The research on BN powder began in 1963, was successfully developed in 1966, and was put into production in 1967 and used in my country's industry and cutting-edge technology.

The physical and chemical properties of boron nitride
Physical properties
CBN is usually black, brown, or dark red crystals with a zinc blend structure with good thermal conductivity. Hardness is second only to diamond, it is a super hard material, often used as tool materials and abrasives.
Boron nitride has chemical resistance properties and is not corroded by inorganic acids and water. The boron-nitrogen bond is broken in the hot concentrated alkali. Above 1200, it will start to oxidize in the air. It begins to decompose at about 2700°C under a vacuum. Slightly soluble in hot acid, insoluble in cold water, relative density 2.29. The compressive strength is 170MPa. The maximum operating temperature is 900°C in an oxidizing atmosphere, and it can reach 2800°C in an inactive reducing atmosphere, but the lubrication performance is poor at room temperature. Most of the properties of boron nitride are better than carbon materials. For hexagonal boron nitride: low friction coefficient, good high-temperature stability, good thermal shock resistance, high strength, high thermal conductivity, low expansion coefficient, high resistivity, corrosion resistance, microwave or transparent Infrared.
Material structure
Hexagonal boron nitride crystals, the most common is graphite lattice, there are also amorphous variants, in addition to the hexagonal crystal form, boron nitride has other crystal forms, including rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN), cubic Boron nitride (c-BN), wurtzite type boron nitride (w-BN). People have even discovered two-dimensional boron nitride crystals like graphene.
Application of Boron Nitride
1. Metal forming mold release agent and metal wire drawing lubricant.
2. Special electrolytic and resistance materials under high-temperature conditions.
3. High-temperature solid lubricants, extrusion anti-wear additives, additives for the production of ceramic composite materials, refractory materials, and anti-oxidation additives, especially suitable for occasions that resist corrosion of molten metals, heat-increasing additives, and high-temperature insulating materials.
4. Heat-sealing desiccant for transistors and additives for polymers such as plastic resins.
5. Pressed into various shapes of boron nitride products, which can be used as high temperature, high pressure, insulation, and heat dissipation parts.
6. Aerospace thermal shielding materials.
7. With the participation of a catalyst, it can be converted into cubic boron nitride with hardness like a diamond after high temperature and high-pressure treatment.
8. The structural materials of the atomic reactor.
9. Nozzles for airplanes and rocket engines.
10. Insulator for high-voltage and high-frequency electricity and plasma arc.
11. Packaging materials to prevent neutron radiation.
12. The superhard materials processed by boron nitride can be made into high-speed cutters and drill bits for geological exploration and oil drilling.
13. In metallurgy, it is used for the isolating ring of continuous casting steel, the launder of amorphous iron, and the release agent of continuous casting aluminum (various optical glass release agents).
14. Production of evaporation boats for aluminum plating of various capacitor films, aluminum plating of picture tubes, aluminum plating of displays, etc.
15. All kinds of fresh-keeping aluminum-plated packaging bags, etc.
16. All kinds of laser anti-counterfeiting aluminum plating, brand hot stamping materials, all kinds of cigarette labels, beer labels, packaging boxes, cigarette packaging boxes, etc.
17. The filler used for lipstick in cosmetics is non-toxic, lubricious, and shiny.
 
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