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What is potassium oleate of natural soap ingredient? How does it effectively kill bacteria?

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Update time : 2021-01-12 09:59:52
What is potassium oleate?

Potassium oleate, another name is Potassium cis-9-octadecenoate. The chemical formula is C18H33KO2. Potassium oleate is a brown solid or a transparent amber liquid. It is fatty acid potassium found in natural soaps. This kind of potassium catalyst is mainly used as a catalyst for the reaction of polyisohydrourethane in polyurethane foam. It can also be used as an emulsifier and detergent. It can kill all kinds of bacteria including MRSA, and can effectively remove MRSA that forms biofilms.
Is potassium oleate dangerous or safe?

CONSIDERED A HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE ACCORDING TO OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200. Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. Acute potassium poisoning after swallowing is rare because vomiting usually occurs and renal excretion is fast.
The FDA says Potassium Oleate "may be safely used in the food and in the manufacture of food components" as long as it is used as "a binder, emulsifier and anti-caking agent. Potassium Oleate can also be used as a cleansing agent in household cleaning products.
What is potassium oleate used for?

Potassium oleate is a potassium catalyst and a trimerization catalyst for polyurethane rigid polyisocyanurate. It is widely used in polyurethane insulation board PIR foam system. In addition, potassium oleate is also widely used in rubber emulsifiers, foaming agents, release agents, detergents, lubricants, fiber softeners and surfactants. Potassium Oleate is used as an emulsifier in many liquid soaps, facial cleansers, mustache waxes, body washes and hair permanents. Emulsifiers act like surfactants and reduce the surface tension of a liquid. Potassium Oleate prevents the ingredients in these products from separating into separate chemicals.
Is potassium oleate natural?

Potassium Oleate is a natural constituent of vegetable oils like sunflower oil. It is used in soapmaking to make vegetable glycerin soaps. In its pure form, it can be an irritant, however, in soap making it is reduced down and is approved as food safe when it is used as a binding ingredient.
How is potassium oleate made?

Due to the different quality of potassium oleate products, potassium oleate solution (potassium oleate content is less than 30%) is a colorless to light yellow viscous liquid, and pasty potassium oleate (potassium oleate content is 50%) is light yellow to light brown viscous silk liquid, paste potassium oleate (potassium oleate content is 70%-92%) is light yellow soft paste solid and potassium oleate particles (potassium oleate content is higher than 95%) are light yellow powder particles.
Potassium salts of fatty acids are produced by adding potassium hydroxide to fatty acids found in animal fats and in plant oils. Fatty acids are extracted from palm, coconut, olive, castor, and cottonseed plants to form this active ingredient.
What are the real effects of potassium oleate

1. Inactivation of human and avian influenza viruses by potassium oleate of natural soap component through exothermic interaction 

Every year, the influenza virus will break out, disrupt social activities in schools and workplaces, and increase medical expenses. Influenza is believed to be the cause of a large number of deaths, and it is estimated to be excessive death, especially for the elderly, patients with chronic diseases and children. In addition, there is always a risk that new strains of the influenza virus will emerge and cause a pandemic. The emergence and outbreak of pandemic virus 2009 (H1N1) is still fresh in many people's minds, and people are increasingly worried that an avian influenza virus H5N1 or H7N9 subtype epidemic may occur in humans in the future.
Influenza virus infection can be prevented by vaccines and can be treated with anti-flu drugs. However, these measures may not be effective due to antigenic changes or drug resistance of influenza viruses. Preventive measures, such as washing hands and wearing a mask, are essential to fight influenza virus infection.
An influenza epidemic is still a problem despite the development of vaccines and anti-influenza drugs. Preventive measures such as handwashing are fundamental and important for counteracting influenza virus infection.
Hand soaps for washing hands contain surfactants as basic ingredients. Synthetic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (LES) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) are used in hand soaps. Surfactants are important components that contribute to detergency and foaming, and they determine the basic performance of hand soap. Soap is a fatty acid salt, usually produced from natural oils, and can also be used as hand soap. Although it is recognized that surfactants dissolve the lipid bilayer membrane of influenza virus particles, the exact mechanism of this effect is still unclear.
The anti-influenza virus effects of surfactants, which are the main components of hand soaps for handwashing: potassium oleate (C18:1), sodium Laureth sulfate (LES) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). For a human influenza virus strain (H3N2), C18:1 reduced the infectivity by 4 logs or more, whereas LES and SDS reduced the infectivity by 1 log or less. Similar results were obtained when an avian influenza virus strain (H5N3) was used. The interaction between the surfactant and virus was then investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The LES-virus system showed a positive value of enthalpy changes (ΔH), meaning an exothermic interaction that indicated a hydrophobic interaction. In contrast, both the C18:1-virus system and the SDS-virus system showed negative values of ΔH, meaning an endothermic interaction that indicated an electrical interaction. The ΔH value of the C18:1-virus system was much higher than that of the SDS-virus system. A mixture of C18:1 and HA proteins similarly showed negative values of ΔH.
These results indicate that influenza virus inactivation by hydrophobic interaction of a surfactant with the viral envelope is insufficient to prevent infection, whereas inactivation by an electrical interaction of a surfactant with HA proteins is sufficient to prevent influenza virus infection.

2. Fatty Acid Potassium Had Beneficial Bactericidal Effects and Removed Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms while Exhibiting Reduced Cytotoxicity towards Mouse Fibroblasts and Human Keratinocytes
Wounds frequently become infected or contaminated with bacteria. Potassium oleate (C18:1K), a type of fatty acid potassium, caused >4 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL reductions in the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli within 10 min and a >2 log CFU/mL reduction in the number of Clostridium difficile within 1 min. C18:1K (proportion removed: 90.3%) was significantly more effective at removing Staphylococcus aureus biofilms than the synthetic surfactant detergents sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) (74.8%, p < 0.01) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (78.0%, p < 0.05).
In the WST (water-soluble tetrazolium) assay, mouse fibroblasts (BALB/3T3 clone A31) in C18:1K (relative viability vs. control: 102.8%) demonstrated a significantly higher viability than those in SLES (30.1%) or SLS (18.1%, p < 0.05). In a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, C18:1K (relative leakage vs. control: 108.9%) was found to be associated with a significantly lower LDH leakage from mouse fibroblasts than SLES or SLS (720.6% and 523.4%, respectively; p < 0.05). Potassium oleate demonstrated bactericidal effects against various species including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium difficile; removed significantly greater amounts of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm material than SLES and SLS; and maintained fibroblast viability; therefore, it might be useful for wound cleaning and peri-wound skin.
Disinfection and the effective removal of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, its resistant form MRSA, and biofilm-forming MRSA, are important to prevent infections and provide wound care. We sought to investigate whether natural soap, which is devoid of any preservatives, additives, or synthetic materials, or its core ingredients such as fatty acid potassium could be used for such purposes. Thus, the cytotoxicity, bactericidal activity, and ability to remove MRSA of various types of fatty acid potassium were investigated.
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