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Germanium oxide mainly used to make metal germanium and also used as spectral analysis and semiconductor material

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Update time : 2021-02-10 13:08:13
Overview of germanium oxide
Germanium dioxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula GeO2, which is the dioxide of germanium, and the electronic formula is the same as that of carbon dioxide. It is a white powder or colorless crystal. There are two kinds of hexagonal crystal system which is slightly soluble in water (stable at low temperature) and insoluble tetragonal crystal system. The transformation temperature is 1033℃. It is mainly used to make metal germanium, and also used as spectral analysis and semiconductor material.
Is germanium oxide acidic or alkaline?
It is actually weakly acidic. Oxides of germanium, tin and lead; amphoteric oxides. The Edexcel specification seems to include germanium oxide, which is completely unimportant while excluding tin oxide, which may be more important.
Germanium dioxide has low toxicity but is nephrotoxic at high doses.
Germanium dioxide is used as a germanium supplement in certain suspicious dietary supplements and "miracle cures". High doses cause germanium poisoning.
Is germanium dioxide amphiphilic?
Germanium monoxide GeO is a compound of germanium and oxygen. Is germanium dioxide ionic? Germanium dioxide, also known as germanium oxide, germanium and germanium salt, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2. It is ampholy soluble in acid to form germanium (II) salt, and soluble in alkali to form "tri-hydro germanate" or "germanate" or "germanate" containing Ge (OH) 3-ion.
What is the structure of germanium oxide?
Hexagonal crystals have the same structure as β quartz, germanium is four-coordinated, and tetragonal crystals have a super-quartz structure called rutile, in which germanium is six-coordinated. Germanium dioxide with a rutile structure can be transformed into another under high pressure, and amorphous germanium dioxide is transformed into a six-coordinate structure. Germanium dioxide with a rutile structure is more soluble in water than hexagonal germanium dioxide, and germanic acid is generated when interacting with water. When germanium dioxide and germanium powder are heated together at 1000°C, germanium monoxide can be obtained.
How is germanium oxide prepared?
Germanium dioxide is also used as a catalyst for the production of polyethylene terephthalate resin and other germanium compounds. It is used as a raw material for the production of certain phosphors and semiconductor materials.
It is made by heating and oxidizing germanium or melting germanium tetrachloride. Using metal germanium and other germanium compounds as raw materials, the preparation of poly can produce optical glass phosphors, which can be used as a conversion catalyst in petroleum refining, dehydrogenation, gasoline ratio adjustment, color film and polyester fiber production.
Not only that, but germanium dioxide is also a catalyst for polymerization reactions. Glass containing germanium dioxide has a high refractive index and dispersion characteristics and can be used as a wide-angle camera and microscope lens. With the development of technology, germanium dioxide is widely used in the manufacture of high-purity metal germanium, germanium compounds, chemical catalysts, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry, PET resins, and electronic equipment. Similar to organic germanium (Ge-132), it is toxic and should not be taken.
What are the uses of germanium oxide?
Both germanium and its glass oxide GeO2 are transparent to the infrared spectrum. The glass can be made into infrared windows and lenses for military, luxury vehicles, and night vision technology for thermal imaging cameras. Compared with other infrared transparent glass, GeO2 is the first choice because of its high mechanical strength, so it is suitable for rugged military use
A mixture of silicon dioxide and germanium dioxide ("silicon germanium") is used as an optical material for optical fibers and optical waveguides. Controlling the ratio of elements can precisely control the refractive index. Silicon germanium glass has a lower viscosity and a higher refractive index than pure silicon. Germania replaces titanium dioxide as the silica dopant for silica fibers, eliminating the need for subsequent heat treatment, which makes the fibers brittle.
Germanium dioxide can also be used as a catalyst for the production of polyethylene terephthalate resin, as well as for the production of other germanium compounds. It is used as a raw material for the production of certain phosphors and semiconductor materials.
Germanium dioxide is used in algae culture as an inhibitor of undesirable diatom growth in algae cultures, because the contamination of relatively fast-growing diatoms usually inhibits or competes with the growth of original algae strains. GeO2 is easily absorbed by diatoms and causes silicon to be replaced by germanium in the biochemical process of diatoms, which leads to a significant reduction or even complete elimination of the growth rate of diatoms, while it has almost no effect on non-diatom algae. For this application, depending on the stage and type of contamination, the concentration of germanium dioxide usually used in the culture medium is 1 to 10 mg/L.
A Fast Charge/Discharge and Wide-Temperature Battery with a Germanium Oxide Layer on a TiC MXene Matrix as Anode

A rapid charge/discharge secondary battery is critical in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Germanium, due to the metallic property and facile alloying reaction with lithium, displays great potential in fast charge/discharge batteries in contrast to other intercalation batteries. In order to accommodate the over 300% volume change, a 2D composite electrode consisting of a homogeneous, amorphous GeO layer bonded on TiC MXenes was successfully developed as an industry available method. The expanded interlayer space inside the MXene matrix accommodates the restricted isotropic expansion from the stress-released, ultrathin GeO layer. Owing to the improved e/Li conductivity from both metallic reduced Ge and MXene, the battery showed an excellent charge/discharge performance as fast as 3 min (20.0 C). High-capacity retention of ∼1048.1 mAh/g along with a Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 99.8% at 0.5 C after 500 cycles was achieved. Under 1.0 C, the capacity was still up to 929.6 mAh/g with a CE of 99.6% (<0.02% capacity decay per cycle) after ultralong (1000) cycling. An almost doubled capacity of 671.6 mAh/g compared to graphite (372 mAh/g at 0.1 C) under 5.0 C and a capacity of 300.5 mAh/g under 10.0 C after 1000 cycles were respectively received. Under cold conditions, due to the low interface energy barrier, an efficient alloying reaction happens which prevents the Li plating on the electrode surface. High capacities of 631.6, 333.9, and 841.7 mAh/g under -20, -40, and 60 °C after 100 cycles demonstrate a wide temperature tolerance of the battery. In addition, a full-cell battery paired with LiNiMnCoO (NMC811) displayed a high capacity of 536.8 mAh/g after 200 cycles. The high capacity retention of a full pouch cell after 50 cycles was also obtained. The super high rate capability along with long cycling, wide temperature range, scalable production, and relatively low cost of this composite display promising potential in specific energy storage applications.
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