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Summary of common metal alloys and properties

Views : 29
Author : Jazmyn
Update time : 2024-03-22 09:45:13

The difference between alloy and pure metal

We all know that alloys refer to products with metallic properties formed by the fusion of two or more metals or metals and non-metals. According to the variety of constituent elements, they can be divided right into binary alloys, ternary alloys, and multi-element alloys. Here, we need to note that alloys are not mixtures in the general concept and can even be pure substances, such as single-phase intermetallic alloys. The added alloy elements can form solid solutions and compounds and produce endothermic or exothermic reactions, thereby changing the metal. The nature of the matrix.

 

At present, there are as many as 10,000 kinds of alloys known to humanity, and they are widely used. Under normal circumstances, the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of alloys are often better than those of pure metals. The main manifestations are:
1. Higher hardness
2. The melting point is generally lower than that of the component metals
3. The characteristics of the alloy can be controlled by the types and contents of the added elements and the conditions under which the alloy is formed.

 

Common alloys and performance applications in life

Generally speaking, alloys can be divided into mixed alloys, such as solder, bismuth alloys, etc.; solid solution alloys, such as gold and silver alloys, etc.; and intermetallic compound alloys, such as brass, composed of copper and zinc. Many properties of alloys are better than those of pure metals, so alloys are mostly used in applied materials. Let's take a look at several common alloys in life.

 


1. Copper alloy

Pure copper has superb thermal and electric conductivity, and its electrical conductivity rankings second only to silver and places 2nd among metals. Copper has excellent chemical stability and rust resistance and is an excellent electric steel material. Copper alloys commonly utilized in industry include brass, bronze, etc.

Bronze describes Cu, $n alloy, which is the very first alloy used in human background. As early as 6,000 years back, Europeans started to add a percentage of tin to pure copper to make axes and other tools with better solidity. The addition of tin substantially boosts the toughness of copper, boosts its plasticity, and improves its corrosion resistance. Consequently, tin bronze is often used to manufacture wear-resistant components and corrosion-resistant accessories such as equipment.
Brass describes Cu and Zn alloys with zinc and a percentage of tin, lead, lightweight aluminum, etc. Cu represent 60%~ to 90%, and Zn for 40%~ to 10%. Brass has remarkable thermal conductivity and deterioration resistance and can be made use of as numerous instrument parts.

 

 

2. Iron-carbon alloy

Iron-carbon alloy is an alloy made up of iron and C, Si, Mn, P, S, and a percentage of various other elements. Except for Fe, the content of C plays a major function in the mechanical properties of steel, which is generally called steel. It is one of the most important and commonly used metal materials in design innovation. According to various carbon components, iron-carbon alloys are separated right into two groups: steel and pig iron.

Pig iron is an iron-carbon alloy with a carbon material of 2% to 4.3%. It is brittle and difficult, resistant to pressure, and can be cast and developed. Pig iron is a vital product for manufacturing machine bases and pipes. The iron pots and maintenance opening covers we utilize when cooking are all made of pig iron.

Steel is an iron-carbon alloy with carbon of 0.03% to 2%. It refers to an iron alloy obtained by using oxidants to remove excess carbon and impurities from pig iron under high-temperature conditions. Steel has good flexibility and good mechanical properties and can be used to manufacture machinery and vehicles. It can be divided into carbon steel and alloy steel. Among them, alloy steel is additionally called unique steel. Several alloy aspects are included in carbon steel to have some special homes, such as high firmness, high wear resistance, high toughness, rust resistance, etc. Stainless steel is also a type of alloy steel. The fused metals are Cr and Ni and can be used in tableware, kitchen utensils, medical tools, etc.

 

3. Aluminum alloy refers to adding alloying elements such as Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn, and rare earth elements to pure aluminum. For example, hard aluminum alloy refers to adding 4% Cu, 0.5% Mn, 0.5% Mg, and 0.7% Si to aluminum, which has the properties of low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance.
Aluminum is closely related to the aviation industry and is known as the "metal with wings." It is widely used in aircraft, rockets, cars, trains, ships, and other products. There are also many applications of aluminum alloys in life, such as aluminum pressure cookers, pots, lids, etc.

4. Gold alloy

Gold alloy is a precious metal material composed of gold as the main component and other elements. Gold is the most malleable metal. The Goddess made of gold will turn into golden yellow, red, rose, gray, green, and all the way to white. There are many types of gold alloys used in industry, among which the most commonly used ones are gold-silver alloys, gold-copper alloys, gold-nickel alloys, and gold-palladium alloys. We usually use karat (K) to express the purity of gold. The purity is 24 karat.

 


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