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Optoelectronics to biomedicine: full analysis of zinc sulfide target uses

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Author : Jazmyn
Update time : 2024-03-25 16:08:00

Zinc sulfide (ZnS) targets play a vital role in many high-tech fields due to their unique physical and chemical properties. This article aims to provide an in-depth discussion of the preparation, characteristics and wide range of applications of zinc sulfide targets. It will also discuss the technical challenges and current solutions encountered in the development and application of zinc sulfide targets.

 

1. Preparation method of zinc sulfide target material

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

PVD is a technology that physically deposits thin films in a vacuum environment and is widely used in the preparation of zinc sulfide targets. Its main advantage is the ability to control the thickness and uniformity of the film while maintaining the high purity and crystallinity of the material.
Key step:
Vacuum environment creation: ensures purity during deposition and reduces the introduction of impurities.
Evaporation of target material: The zinc sulfide target material is evaporated into vapor using an electron beam or thermal evaporation techniques.
Thin film deposition: Steam condenses on the substrate surface to form a uniform and continuous zinc sulfide film.
Technical advantages:
High purity and crystalline quality films.
Precise thickness control capability.
Suitable for coating high-temperature sensitive materials.
 

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

CVD is a technology that uses chemical reactions to deposit solid materials on a substrate. It is suitable for the preparation of zinc sulfide targets, particularly complex-shaped substrate coatings, and can operate over a wider temperature range.
Key step:
Gas reactant introduction: Precursor gas containing zinc and sulfur is introduced into the reaction chamber.
Chemical reaction: At high temperatures, the precursor decomposes, and zinc and sulfur react on the substrate to form zinc sulfide.
Thin film formation: The reaction product is deposited on the substrate as a thin film to form a zinc sulfide layer.
Technical advantages:
Able to deposit uniformly on complex-shaped substrates.
Provides more flexibility in chemical and structural design.
Suitable for large-area production.
 

2. Physical and chemical properties of zinc sulfide


Crystal structure

Cubic and Hexagonal Crystal System: Zinc sulfide can exist in two crystal structures: a cubic system (zinc blende structure) and a hexagonal system (wurtzite structure). The choice of these two structures depends on preparation conditions such as temperature, pressure, and the technique used for growth.
Effect of crystal quality on optoelectronic properties: The integrity and purity of the crystal structure directly affect the optoelectronic properties of zinc sulfide, and a high-quality crystal structure helps improve the performance of optoelectronic devices.


Optical properties

High refractive index and wide bandgap: Zinc sulfide has a high refractive index and wide bandgap (approximately 3.68 eV), which makes it an excellent optical material for applications in the UV to visible light range.
Application Impact: These properties make zinc sulfide an ideal material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, and photodetectors.
 


Electrical properties

High electron mobility: Zinc sulfide has high electron mobility, which is critical for the high-speed operation of electronic and optoelectronic devices.
Semiconductor properties: Zinc sulfide is an II-VI semiconductor, and its electrical properties make it widely used in solar cells, sensors, and various microelectronic devices.

 

3. Application fields of zinc sulfide targets
Optoelectronics industry

Photodetector
Performance requirements: high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and fast response time.
The role of zinc sulfide: Due to its wide bandgap characteristics, zinc sulfide can provide high sensitivity in the ultraviolet region and is suitable for use in ultraviolet photodetectors.
Application examples: Application of zinc sulfide-based UV detectors in military surveillance, flame detection and high-precision UV spectrum analysis.

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
Performance requirements: high brightness, low energy consumption, and long life.
The role of zinc sulfide: Because of its wide bandgap, zinc sulfide serves as an active layer in blue and ultraviolet LEDs, improving their performance.
Application examples: Blue and UV LEDs in lighting, display technology and medical disinfection.
 

Display technology


Flat panel display

Performance requirements: high resolution, low energy consumption, and good viewing angle dependence.
The role of zinc sulfide: As the luminescent layer of electronic display panels, zinc sulfide's excellent optical properties enable flat-panel displays to provide more vivid colors and higher resolution.
Application examples: Zinc sulfide improves display quality and energy efficiency in OLED and LCD technology.


Projection system

Performance requirements: high brightness and high contrast.
The role of zinc sulfide: Zinc sulfide is used as a luminescent or reflective material in the projection system. Its high refractive index and wide band gap characteristics improve projection brightness and image quality.
Application examples: Advanced projection technologies such as DLP (Digital Light Processing) and the use of zinc sulfide in LCD projectors.


Solar industry

Buffer layer materials for solar cells
Performance requirements: Improve photoelectric conversion efficiency and stability.
The role of zinc sulfide: As a buffer layer in thin-film solar cells, zinc sulfide improves the cell's absorption and conversion efficiency of sunlight through its wide bandgap.
Application examples: Zinc sulfide is used as a buffer layer in CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) and CdTe (cadmium tellurium) thin film solar cells to improve battery performance.
 

Biomedical field

biomarker
Performance requirements: high stability, non-toxicity, and good biocompatibility.
The role of zinc sulfide: Zinc sulfide's optical properties make it an ideal biofluorescent labeling material for cell imaging and disease diagnosis.
Application examples: Use of zinc sulfide-based fluorescent markers in cancer detection and molecular imaging.


Drug delivery system

Performance requirements: Precise control of drug release rate and target positioning.
The role of zinc sulfide: Zinc sulfide nanoparticles have been studied as drug delivery carriers, utilizing their surface modifiability and biocompatibility to achieve targeted drug delivery.
Application examples: The application of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in cancer treatment achieves efficient and precise drug delivery.


4. Technical challenges

Impurity Control

Challenge description: Avoiding the introduction of impurities is a major challenge during the preparation of zinc sulfide targets. The presence of impurities can seriously affect the optical and electrical properties of zinc sulfide, thereby reducing the performance of the final application product.
Impact: The increase in carrier recombination caused by impurities can significantly reduce the efficiency and stability of optoelectronic devices.
 

Improved uniformity and compositeness

Challenge description: Achieving high uniformity and excellent composite properties of zinc sulfide films is crucial to improving device performance. Non-uniformity can cause local differences in device performance, affecting overall performance.
Impact: The film's non-uniformity and poor compositeness will lead to inconsistent performance of optoelectronic devices, limiting their use in high-precision applications.

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