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By TRUNNANO | 11 August 2023 | 0 Comments

The classification and synthesis of nanodiamonds are introduced

With the development of nanotechnology, the surface modification technology of nanomaterials has gradually matured. Scientists have begun to regulate nanodiamonds' surface structure and properties. Then couple other biomolecules and nanoparticles with nanodiamonds to form nano complexes for drug transportation, biological imaging, and other fields.
Classification of nanodiamonds
According to the initial particle size, nanodiamonds are classified into (1) nanocrystalline (1-100nm), which can be either single crystal (high temperature and high-pressure ball milling production) or polycrystalline (cold compression synthesis of graphite carbon or detonation method). (2) super single crystal particles (2-10nm) produced by detonation or laser ablation. (3) diamond-like (1-2nm), usually extracted from petroleum. Size must be selected depending on the intended application, as the properties of nanodiamonds depend upon their shape and size.
Nanodiamonds can be divided into zero-nanometer diamond single-crystal particles, one-dimensional diamond nanorods, two-dimensional diamond nanosheets, three-dimensional nanodiamond polycrystalline particles, and nanodiamond films.
The main synthesis methods of nanodiamond
(1) High temperature and pressure method. The high-temperature and high-pressure method is a method to transform graphite powder into diamond particles under quasi-static pressure and high temperature. This method often uses transition metals as catalysts to accelerate the transition from graphite to diamond. High temperature and high-pressure methods can be controlled to prepare diamond particles of different grain sizes, different morphology, and quality, and it is the longest-developed and most commonly used diamond particle preparation method. However, this method has harsh reaction conditions, high production costs, and low safety factors.
(2) Chemical vapor deposition method. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a common method to prepare nanodiamond particles, films, diamond nanosheets, and diamond nanowires. This method is based on hydrocarbons as carbon sources and as the precursor of diamond growth. A dense diamond with a grain size of a nanometer is obtained through secondary nucleation of the diamond. Nanodiamond particles, films, diamond nanosheets, and diamond nanowires can be prepared by changing the experimental parameters and the types and concentrations of participating gases.
(3) Detonation method. The production cost and efficiency of nanodiamonds synthesized by the detonation method are relatively low. The nanodiamond particles synthesized by this method have more impurities and must be screened and purified to get the nanodiamond particles. The shell of nanodiamond particles by detonation method is diamond-like or graphite-like disordered structure, small in size, and lightweight, so it is easy to agglomerate. Still, there are relatively more active groups on its surface.
The crushing method. The crushing method is also known as the high-energy ball milling method, which uses the ball mill to break the block diamond into nanodiamond particles of different sizes through grinding and vibration by controlling different ball milling media, abrasive ratio, and other experimental parameters. The method is simple in operation, mild in condition, and often used in producing diamond particles. However, the size difference of nanodiamonds synthesized by this method is large, easy to agglomerate, more impurities, and easy to damage the equipment.
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